Fats – biochemistry

Fats – biochemistry

Fats are an essential part of a healthy diet. They contribute to the taste and texture of foods, like the smoothness of guacamole and the flakiness of a croissant. Fats are also a major source of energy, a critical component of cells and tissues, and they also absorb essential vitamins, and can be converted into […]

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Postpartum hemorrhage – causes, symptoms, treatment, pathology

Postpartum hemorrhage – causes, symptoms, treatment, pathology

Postpartum hemorrhage is a significant loss of blood after giving birth, and it’s the number one reason for maternal morbidity and maternal death around the world. Specifically it’s defined as losing more than 500ml of blood after a vaginal delivery or more than 1000ml after a cesarean section delivery. Of course, deliveries can be messy […]

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Resting membrane potential – definition, examples

Resting membrane potential – definition, examples

Each cell in the human body is wrapped in a membrane that separates the inner environment and outer environment, and positively and negatively charged ions aren’t equally distributed on both sides of the membrane. Fundamentally, it’s these differences in concentration and charge as well as permeability across the membrane that establishes the cell’s resting membrane […]

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Electrocardiography (ECG/EKG) – basics

Electrocardiography (ECG/EKG) – basics

An electrocardiogram – or ECG – or the dutch and german version of the word – EKG, is a tool used to visualize the electricity that flows through the heart. An ECG tracing specifically shows how the depolarization wave during each heartbeat – which is a wave of positive charge. And the way it looks […]

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Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – causes, symptoms & treatment

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) – causes, symptoms & treatment

Say you’ve got a huge presentation in front of all your colleagues; you’re nervous, you’ve got quite a bit of stress leading up to the presentation. That stress is completely normal, and really—probably useful in certain situations since it can make you more alert and careful. After the presentation’s over you feel the stress start […]

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Clinician’s Corner: Tips on empathetic listening for clinicians

Clinician’s Corner: Tips on empathetic listening for clinicians

all right how are you feeling today hey guys it’s doctor Ishida side here from osmosis and today we’re going to talk about empathetic listening something that’s made a huge difference in my own life as I’ve taken care of lots of patients and I want to tell you a few tips and tricks I […]

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Maple Syrup Urine Disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Maple Syrup Urine Disease – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare genetic metabolic disorder where the body cannot break down branched chain amino acids like valine, leucine, and isoleucine completely, causing buildup of these amino acids and their toxic metabolic byproducts. It was named maple syrup urine disease since the urine that contain these metabolites smell like maple syrup. […]

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Delirium – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Delirium – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology

Delirium is a common and very serious neuropsychiatric syndrome. Typically it affects older patients with multiple medical problems, in fact up to half of all elderly patients in the hospital will have an episode of delirium at some point, but being said it can affect anyone – even children, even though that’s much less common. […]

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The road to residency

The road to residency

For every medical or osteopathic student aspiring to be a clinician, a key stop along the way is residency. In total, there are 23 major types of residency programs, and to ultimately find one that is a good fit you need to figure out what sort of training you’re looking for, complete the application process, […]

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Hypercalcemia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Hypercalcemia – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

With hypercalcemia, hyper -means over and -calc- refers to calcium, and -emia refers to the blood, so hypercalcemia means higher than normal calcium levels in the blood, generally over 10.5 mg/dL. Now, calcium exists as an ion with a double positive charge – Ca2+ – and it’s the most abundant metal in the human body. […]

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